Thursday, September 3, 2009

The general science

Topic the study cell(PART ONE)

There are three main branches of biology

· Microbiology

· Botany

· Zoology

Term biology was given by Lamarck and Treveranus

Some well known father’s of different biological fields are

Father of biology Aristotal

Farther of zoology Aristotal

Father of botany Theophrastus

Father of microbiology Leeuwenhoek

Father of medicine Hippocrates

Indian Father of medicine Dhanvantri


· Robert hook was first to discover dead cell

· Living cell was first discovered by Leeuwenhoek

· Cell is basic structural and functional unit of life

· Cell is divide In two parts


This is the cell type in which there is no definite nucleus as DNA not surrounded by a membrane

These have no the membrane bound organelle except ribosome

These have cell walls made up of murein


These cells contain a membrane bound nucleus and have nucleolus & chromosomes

These has all cell organelles

Cell wall mainly are made of cellulose

Basic cell structure

Cell is mainly composed of three parts

1. protoplasm

2. organelle

3. nucleus


It is the living fluid of the cell

It is called the physical basis of life by huxlay

It contains 75% OF WATER & other 25 % of different substances containing living and nonliving molecules

Cell organelles

Endoplasmic reticulum

Complex system of membrane bound tubules and flattened sacs

It has two types

  1. rough endoplasmic reticulum
  2. smooth endoplasmic reticulum

On the rough endoplasmic reticulum there are too many ribosome attached on its surface

rough endoplasmic reticulum is completely engaged in protein synthesis so most abundant in cells engaged in active protein synthesis

while smooth endoplasmic reticulum is mainly associated with cells engaged with lipid metabolism


  • They are the smallest organelle of the cell
  • Site for the cell protein synthesis
  • They are of two type
  • 70 S in prokaryote and 80 s in eukaryote
  • They are not surrounded by any membrane


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