Wednesday, April 26, 2017

Indian Culture Special Part - 1


          



 # 1. CHANNAPATNA Handicraft 

Channapatna handcraft can be traced to the reign of Tipu Sultan who invited artisans from Persia to train local artisans in the making of the wooden toys.
Channapatna

  1. The traditional wooden toy-and-doll craft, with perfected lacquer-ware of Channapatna (on the Bangalore-Mysore highway).
  2. It is protected by a geographical indication (GI) tag but today a crisis stares the industry in the face.
  3. The art is known for its mix of vegetable dye and food grade pigments, with natural shellac insect residue.
  4. It obtained from the trees of Amaltaas and Kusum in West Bengal, Jharkhand and Orissa.
  5. Although Channapatna’s toy industry survives, what pains is the near-absence of lacquering that attaches a heritage value to it.

#2 Martial dances of India

Martial dances of India

  • Chholia of Uttranchal,
  • Kalari paittu of Kerala,
  • Thang-taa of Manipur
  • Gatka of Punjab
  • Paika of Orissa
  • Pang Lhabosol of Sikkim


Kalarippayattu (asked in UPSC Prelim 2014) : 
  • Kalarippayattu is a famous Indian martial art from land of attraction Kerala and one of the oldest fighting systems in existence. 
  • It is practiced in most of the part of south India. 
  • A kalari is the school or training hall where martial arts are taught. 
  • It includes strikes, kicks and some weapon based practiced, 
  • Footwork patterns is most important key in Kalarippayattu. 
  • It is the best Indian martial art that has been used in many movies to make it popular, like Ashoka and The myth.



Silambam: 
  • Silambamis, a weapon-based Indian martial art from Tamil Nadu. 
  • Every states has it own style of martial arts. 
  • A wide variety of weapons are used in silamban, some of which are not found anywhere else in the world. 
  • Silambam art also used animal movements of snake, tiger, eagle forms and footwork patterns is play a key role here as well. 
  • Another part of Silambam is Kuttu varisai, it is the unarmed kind of martial art.

   




Gatka: 
  • Gatkais weapon-based Indian martial art basically created by the Sikhs of Punjab.
  • There are many weapons used in Gatka like, Stick, Talwar, kirpan and kataar. 
  • The attacking and defense methods are based upon the positions of the hands feet and nature of weapons used. 
  • It is also displayed during the different celebrations or at fairs in Punjab.
  • The sport form is played by two opponents wielding wooden staves called gatka. These sticks may be paired with a shield. Points are scored for making contact with the stick. 
  • The other weapons are not used for sparring, but their techniques are taught through forms training.
  • It is based on the basic principle of unification of the mind, body and spirit in a rhythm of life to train a saint-soldier to be able to defend himself/herself.






Musti yuddha
  • It is unarmed martial art from the oldest city of India “Varanasi“. 
  • Technique used in this martial arts are punches, kicks, knees and elbow strikes. 
  • This style is a complete art of physical, mental and spiritual development. 
  • This art is very rarely visible but was very popular in middle age.




Thang Ta: 
  • Thang Ta is popular term for the ancient Manipuri Martial Art also known as HUYEN LALLONG. 
  • Manipuri martial arts with swords and spears, is a strong yet gracefully sophisticated art.
  • The Manipuri art of huyen lalong was once practiced by the state's indigenous hill tribes who would engage in duels governed by strict rules of conduct. 
  • The armed component called thang-ta is named after the system's main weapons, the thang (sword) and ta (spear). Practitioners spar through cheibi gatka in which a foam sword is used together with a shield. 
  • Unarmed huyen lalong is called sarit-sarak and is used in conjunction with thang-ta when the fighter loses their weapon





Lathi: 
  • Lathi is an ancient armed martial art of India. 
  • It also refers one of the world’s oldest weapons used in martial arts. 
  • Lathi or stick martial arts practiced in Punjab and Bengal region of India. 
  • Lathi still remains a popular sport in Indian villages.



Mardani Khel: 
  • Mardani Khel is an armed method of martial art created by the Maratha. 
  • This traditional martial art of Maharashtra is practiced in kolhapur.





Pari-khanda: 
  • Pari-khandaa style of sword and shield fighting from Bihar. 
  • This art is created by the rajputs. 
  • Pari-khanda steps and techniques are also used in Chau dance.

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#3 Folk Dance in India 
.

Classification of Folk Dances of India:

  • Occupational
  • Seasonal
  • Martial
  • Devotional
  • Ritualistic
  • Numerous with local variations to various religions and cultures
  • Guided by songs that glorify nature
  • Express traditional occupation and devotion to the deities

Bhangra Folk Dance (Punjab):

punjab-bhangra
  • Most popular dance of Punjab
  • Musical instruments – tabla, dholak, chimta and others
  • Weddings and social festivals

Garba Folk Dance (Gujarat):


garba-gujarat
  • Women folk – enacted before the temples of the mother Goddess “Amba”
  • Rhythmic clapping + circular movement >> “NAVARATRI” and Holi
  • dances-ias-upsc
  • Derived from “Garbha deep” >> lamp inside an earthenware pot or the light which glows inside the temple sanctum


  • sanctum-garba

Bihu Folk Dance (Assam):

  • Regional festival of Bihu in Assam
  • Brisk dance movements by men and women
  • assam-bihu
  • Costumes – Traditional, Colourful Assamese garments

Chhau Folk Dance (Eastern India):



north-east-chauu
  • Martial dance form – male dance with use of mask
  • West Bengal, Orissa and Jharkhand
  • 3 styles: Seraikela (Jharkhand), Purulia (Bengal), Mayurbanj (Orissa) – popular in Purulia district of West Bengal
  • Derived from ‘Chhaya’ – shadow or mask
  • Depict themes from Ramayana, Mahabharatha and Puranas

Padayani Folk Dance (Kerala):

kerala-padayani
  • Regional temple festivals
  • Main centres – Kottayam, Quilom, Pathanamthitta, Aleppey districts
  • Masks of various shapes

Gaur Folk Dance (M.P):

  • Bastar district
  • Marriages
  • Meaning – ferocious bison
    madhya-pradesh-gaur
  • Call for the dance is given by sanding a bamboo trumpet or horn
  • Men and women
  • Costume (men) – head – dresses decorated with strings of cowrie shells and plumes of peacock
  • Costume (women) – brass hillets and bead necklaces
  • Men with drums move in a circle >> create variety of dancing patterns
  • Incorporates movements of a bison
  • bison


Jhoomar Folk Dance (Punjab):


punjab-jhoomar

  • Harvest season
  • Slower and more rhythmic form of Bhangra
  • Content of songs – love and emotion
  • Performed in a circle to the tune of songs

Kummi Folk Dance (Tamil Nadu):


tamil-nadu-kummi
  • Women
  • Temple festivals, pongal etc.
  • Women move in a circle and dance while clapping their hands rhythmically
  • One of the women leads the song while others take up the refrain

Therukoothu Folk Dance (Tamil Nadu):


tamil-nadu-therukoothu
  • Junctions of the village during village festivities
  • Men and Women

Majilattom Folk Dance (Tamil Nadu):


tamil-nadu-majilattam
  • Artistic and religious form of dance performed in temples
  • Performer dances on a tall piece of wood attached to the end of his feet
  • Wears costumes from head to toe like a peacock with beak

Yakshagana Folk Dance (Karnataka):



yakshagana
  • Musical dance drama based on Ramayana and Mahabharatha which deals with themes of valour and heroism
  • Mainly manifestation of God Vishnu
  • Imp – footwork, hand gestures – absent
  • Costumes – red and yellow colours
  • Starts in the twilight hours with the beating of compositions on drums from upto an hour before the actors get on stage
  • Depicts a story from Indian epics and puranas

Bhavai Folk Dance (Gujarat):


bhavai
  • Most colourful and skillful 7 pots folk dance

Dandiya Raas (Gujarat):


gujarat-dandiya-raas
  • Simple and rhythmic dance performed by young people moving around in an imaginary circle to the beat of Dandiya sticks that they carry in their hands


Tamasha (Maharashtra): 


maharashtra-tamasha
  • 18th century form of entertainment
  • Name derived from Persian word “spectacle”
  • Patronized by Maratha rulers

Kutiyattam Folk Dance (Kerala):


kerala-kutiyattam
  • Sanskrit theatre tradition of more than 2000 yrs closely follows the precepts of Natyashastra



Ottam Tullal:

  • Similar to Kathakali
  • Also called as poor man’s Kathakali
  • Solo dance with simplicity and humour


  • kerala-ottam-tullal

Kavadiyattam (Tamil Nadu):

Karagam – temple dance


folk-dance-kavadiyattam



Dummy Folk Dance (Tamil Nadu):

Horse dance in temples
dummy


Hikat Folk Dance (J & K):


jammu-kashmir-hikat
Expression of joy and love by guys and girls



Giddha  (Punjab):

Women at harvest

punjab-giddha



Cham (Arunachal Pradesh):

Masked ritual dance
arunachal-pradesh-cham


Ras Dances (Manipur):


manipur-ras
  • Maha Ras, Nitya Ras, Vasanta Ras
  • Celebrate the season and depicts the life of Sri Krishna



Pung Cholam (Manipur):


manipur
  • Dance with drums
  • Playing the Mrudangam, the dancer executes amazing and energetic movements in unique combination of dance and movement


Jatra (West Bengal):


west-bengal
  • 15th century as a result of Bhakti movement in which the devotees of Krishna go in a procession (Yatra or Jatra)  to holy places singing and dancing



Baul (West Bengal):


west-bengal

  • Wandering minstrel of Sahajiya sect(Tantric sect of Bengal) hold week long festival during which they sing and dance



Charkula (Uttar Pradesh):

  • Veiled women balancing large multi-tiered circular wooden pyramids on their heads, alight with 108 oil lamps, dance to the strains of ‘rasiya’ – songs of Lord Krishna. Charkula is especially performed on the third day after Holi – the day which Radha was born.


     All these Folk dances of India contributed a lot for the development of Classical dances.

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#4 Famous Sarees in India

Types of  Sarees     –       Places Famous for it
  1. Paithani            –     Paithan (Maharashtra)
  2. Tanchoi silk      –     Varanasi
  3. Pochampalli      –    Hyderabad
  4. Chanderi           –    Chanderi (MP)
  5. Muga silk           –   Sualkuchi (Assam)
  6. Sambalpuri     –      Sambalpur
  7. Jamdani     –          Bengal and UP
  8. Baluchari     –         Murshidabad (W.Bengal)


KALAMKARI

Image result for kalamkari sarees'




  • Painted & printed textiles of AP
  • Kalamkari came from brush like instrument like “Kalam”: used in medieval period to draw pattern on fabric with natural colour.
  • The clothes from the former school were influenced by Persian painting and the tenets of Islam and Kalahasthi school reproduced scenes from Hindu mythology
  • The art of Kalamkari belongs to 2 distinct schools – Masulipatnam (muslim rulers) & Srikalahasthi (Hindu temples)


APA TANI WEAVES:

Image result for APA TANI WEAVES


  • Apa Tani tribe – lower Subansiri dt of Arunachal Pradesh
  • Home – Ziro in Apa Tani plateau located in North of Itanagar 
  • Women – weaving and one or two portable loin loom 
  • Traditional colours – Red, Green and Yellow obtained from leaves, roots, creepers and the barks of trees
  • Cloth – use of broad stripes alternating with narrow ones
  • Other geometric patterns – extra weft technique

Baademeri Print


baademeri



  • Manifestation of Rajasthani folk art on textiles
  • Recognized by their motifs, boldness of designs and stark colours
  • Chief centre of production – Sindh: Hindus of Badmer are engaged in this art
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# 5 Languishing Crafts in India 

Name of the craft
Place
State
Indigo Dyeing
Sivasagar
Assam
Assamese Jewellery


Jorhat
Assam
Mirizhim


Manjula
Assam
Natural Dyeing


Nangpho
Assam
Saphe Lamphee
Imphal
Manipur
Lashingphee


Imphal
Manipur
Natural Block Printing
Imphal
Manipur
Miniature Painting
Hyderabad
Andhra Pradesh
Cherial Painting


Cherial
Andhra Pradesh
Raja Rani Dolls


Tirupati
Andhra Pradesh
Temple Kalamkari
Kumbkodam
Tamil Nadu
Temple Applique


Madurai
Tamil Nadu
Gheso Work


Bikaner
Rajasthan
Kavad



Bassi
Rajasthan
Danka



Udaipur
Rajasthan
Rogan Painting



Nirona
Gujarat
Warak printing


Udaipur
Rajasthan
Mend Ki Chapai



Sanganer
Rajasthan
Split Ply-braiding


Thar Region (India)
Rajasthan
Pithora Painting


Jhabua
Madhya Pradesh
Hand Block Printing
Tarapur/Javad
Madhya Pradesh
Sanjhi Crafts


Mathura
U.P.
Cuttaki Chappals
Barang
Orissa
Horn Craft



Cuttack
Orissa
Ganjeefa Cards


Sonepur
Orissa
Wood Toys



Bargarh
Orissa
Copper snake
Boudh
Orissa
Namda


Srinagar
Kashmir
Pinjrakari

Srinagar
Kashmir
Pottery
Srinagar
Kashmir
Silver ware
Srinagar
Kashmir
Tapestry
Srinagar
Kashmir
Wagu
Srinagar
Kashmir
Chamba Rumal


Chamba
Himachal Pradesh
Suri Bowl/Sherpai
Birbhum
West Bengal



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