Sunday, September 13, 2009


article 12 :- this article provide the definitions of the word state according to these article the state include

1. GOI and parliament of india
2. goverment and lagistature of state
3. all thelocal and other athourities

article 13 provide the court to review the lagistature act so that a no law can be made damaging fundmental rights of a person the power of declaring a law uncounstitutional is given to the supreme and high court

article 14 this article deals with the equality beffore law and equal protection of law the both are different things as

equality before law :- means there is no special previlage by resone of birth religion communitry so all the human are equal before law this is an negetive concept

equal protection of law it means right to equality of treatment in equal circumstances it is a positive concept

the concept of equality provide for protection against arbitrariness and promote natural justice

it also provide the equal pay for the equal work law

there are some exception to these rules as

according toarticle 361 the president and the governor are immune to this rule acoording to article 361(1) they a re not answeraqble to court for the excersicse of there power and duties

according to 361(2) no criminal proceeding can be intiated against them during term of office

according to act 361(4) no civil proceeding can acty against them even due to act done by them before and after term of office if it is not notified in written before two months of entering to the office in written

some special member are treated diffrently as lawer docxtor armed force member as some law impiles only to them

article 15-16 which are available to citizen only form the special and extended part of article 14

they are as such

article 15

15(1) no discrim ination on the ground of only religion race caste sex or place of birth impiles to matter within control of state

15(2):- prohibts any discrimination on public place objective is to eradicate the the hindu social system

15(3):- provision of protection of women and children

15(4) :- protect the interest of backward classes added by 1st amendment act 1961

ART 16

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