Friday, December 25, 2009

Gulf of Mexico

Principal river system of the world



    Longest river (6690km)

White Nile : originates from Lake Albert (Uganda) and Blue Nile (Ethiopia) ; join 2gether at Khartoum in Sudan to form River Nile ; flowing thru Egypt (longest course) it falls into Mediterranean Sea near Alexandria


( South America )

Originates from Andes Mountain (Peru); tributaries come from Boilivia,Ecuador and Venezuela ,, flows mainly thru Brazil and falls into Atlantic Ocean
Yangtze Kiang

(Asia )

Rises in north-east Tibet ; flows mainly thru China, draining into the East China Sea

(North America )

Mississippi- rises in Lake Itasca(USA); Missouri joins it Saint Louis ; they flow into Gulf of Mexico( New Orleans)

(North America )

Rising in great Slave lake , flows thru Canada to Mackenzie Bay in Arctic Ocean


Rises in Tibet. Falls into South china Sea


Rising near Sierra Leone , it crosses Niger and flows mainly thru Nigeria and enters Atlantic Ocean at Gulf of Guinea
Murray- Darling (Australia ) Murray – rises in Australian Alps; Darling-biggest tributary ( joins it in the New South Wales ) both empty into Indian Ocean at Encounter Bay

( Europe)

Rises in Valdai Plateau north-east of Moscow and enters the Caspian Sea


Rises near Baden (Germany); enters the Black Sea



    Rises from Great Himalaya, Karakoram .Ladakh, Zanskar, Kailasah and Trasns –Himalaya ranges and ultimately join to form 3 great river systems.

The Indus system : One of the world’s largest river system
River Origin Destination Length Tributaries Other Features
The Indus

(westernmost of Himalaya )

Mansarover Lake side of, Tibet Arabian Sea 1270 Zanskar( rises on Zanskar Range and joins Indus below Leh)

Dras( from northern side of Zojila pass)

Shyok(from northern side of Karakorum

Shigar: drains southern slope of k2

draining the glaciers and mountain slopes of many peaks:

Masherbrum(7821m), Nanga Parbat (7114m), Rakaposhi(7788m), Tirich Mir (7690m)

The Jhelum Seshanag Wular lake 725 Lidar: at the head of it Imp river in Kashmir , main waterway
The Chenab

( largest of Indus tributaries )

1800 Chandra and Bhaga : at source , rises opp sides of Baralacha Pass in Lahul

Chandra: flows thru a snow-clad , barren country

Bhaga :precipitous stream

Chandra & bhaga joins @Thandi

nd flows thru Chamba

largest tributary of Indus
The Ravi

( smallest river of Punjab )

Rohtang pass join Chenab in Pakistan 725km

The Beas Rohtang pass Joins Sutlej

The Sutlej Rakas Lake

Spiti Imp trading centre betn Kailas & Mansarover
The Saraswati In siwalik hills of simur joins Ghaggar

The Ganga System : important river system, covers fourth of country’s total surface;

Bhagirathi: upper course of river , Source: Gangotri Glacier(Gomukh)

Alakananda: another stream from Alaka Glacier , Devprayag: two head streams meet at Devprayag ,

largest river basin in country

River Origin Destination Length Tributaries other features
The Yamuna Yamontri glacier
1376 Joins Ganga @

Allahabad ; Chambal ( rises near Mhow ), Sind , Betwa ,Ken

The Son Amarkantak Joins Yamuna @Etawah district
joining Ganga near Ramnagar
The Ram Ganga Kumaon Himalaya

joining Ganga near Kannauj
The Sarda

(called Cauka and Kali)

greet Himalaya

The Ghaghra East of Gangotri

The Gandak Nepal china border ( central Himalaya )

Meets Ganga on its left at sonpur
The Kosi Peaks of Nepal ends in Ganga below Bhagalpur

The Damodar Chottanagpur Plateau

Garhi, Konar, Jamunia. Barakar

The Brahmaputra System: also called Tsangpo-Brahmaputra, is a trans-boundary river and one of the major rivers of Asia.

From its origin in southwestern Tibet as the Yarlung Zangbo River, it flows across southern Tibet to break through the Himalayas in great gorges and into Arunachal Pradesh where it is known as Dihang.[2] It flows southwest through the Assam Valley as Brahmaputra and south through Bangladesh as the Jamuna (not to be mistaken with Yamuna of India). There it merges with the Ganges to form a vast delta. About 1,800 miles (2,900 km) long, the river is an important source for irrigation and transportation.

The East-flowing Rivers
River Origin Destination Length Tributaries other features
The Mahanadi near Sihawa in Raipur (Chhattisgarh) Bay of Bengal 858
drainage areas: 53%M.P nd chattisgarh,46%Orissa and rest- M.P. nd Jharkhand
The Godavari Trambak(Nasik – western Ghats ) Bay of Bengal

(form large delta before draining)

1465 Manjara , Penganga , Pranhita ,Wardha, Waingangā ,Indrāvati, Tal , Sabari, Mula and Pravara largest of peninsula and 2nd largest river of country , known as Vrindha Ganga and Dakshin Ganga
The Krishna North of Mahabaleshwar

(western Ghats )

Bay of Bengal 1400 Tungabhadra –largest tributary

(Tunga+Bhadra):originates in Mysore nd join below shimoga

Bhima: flows thru Maharashtra nd Andhra Pradesh

The Subarnarekha Chottanagpur Plateau(Ranchi) Bay of Bengal 395

The Penner Kolar dist.(Karnataka) sea near town of Nellore
Chitravati and Papaghni
The Brahmani formed by joining Koel and sankh Bay of Bengal

(Brahmani meets Baitarani just before)


The Baitarani Keonjar Plateau in Orissa

The Cauvery Brahmagiri hills in Coorg dist.
805 Bhavani, Noyil, Amaravati,Hemavati, Shimsa and Kabbani 55% of Cauvery basin lies in Tamil Nadu

Karnataka (41%)

Kerala (5%)

The Tambrapani Agastyamalai’s slope (western Ghats ) Gulf of Mannar

The West-flowing Rivers
River Origin Destination Length Tributaries other features
The Narmada Amarkantak plateau (M.P.)
largest of west flowing rivers ; Dhuandhara Falls: it cascades down to make the narrow gorge of Marble Rocks
The Tapti near Multai Plateau (Satpura) Gulf of Cambay 724 Purna :enters Khandesh 2nd largest of west flowing rivers
The Luni Annasagar in Aravalis(Ajmer) Sahni marshes of the Rann of Kutch.
Sarsuti: rises Pushkar lake at Ajmer
The Sabarmati Lake of Jai Samudra in Udaipur dist. Gulf of Cambay
Sabar(coming from Idar) and Hathmati(coming from Mahikantha)
The Mahi Gwalior

Gulf of Cambay

Nisha Dolas


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