Saturday, September 5, 2009


Rainwater Harvesting:
Rainwater harvesting is the gathering and collection of water from the rooftop. The traditional method of rain water harvesting is the most effective and simple way to conserve the water. It means utilization of rain water for the domestic as well as agricultural purposes. There are three technical methods of rain water harvesting such as Catchment, Conveyance and storage.
Watershed Management:
Rivers originate in streams that flow down mountains and hill slopes. A group of small streams flow down hillsides to meet larger streams in the valley which forms the tributaries of major rivers. The management of a single unit of land with its water drainage system is called watershed management. It is a technique that has several components. This includes soil and water management and developing vegetative cover. The natural drainage pattern of a watershed unit if managed appropriately can bring about local prosperity by a year round abundance of water that improves the quality of human life in the area.
By constructing a series of long trenches and mounds along contours of the hill to hold the rainwater and allow it to percolate into the ground. This ensures that underground stores of water are fully recharged. This is enhanced by allowing grasses and shrubs to grow and by planting trees (mainly local species) which hold the soil and prevents it from being washed away in the monsoon. Local grass cover can however only increase if free grazing of domestic animals is prevented by stall feeding. The next measure is to make ‘nala’ plugs in the streams so that the water is held in the stream and does not rush down the hillside. In selected sites, several small check dams are built which together hold back larger amounts of water. All these measures constitute sound watershed management. It improves the water table and keeps the streams and nalas flowing throughout the year.

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