Wednesday, March 20, 2013

Power has only one duty - to secure the Social  Welfare of the People."


  • The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA, also known as National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, NREGS) is Indian legislation enacted on August 25, 2005.
  • The NREGA provides a legal guarantee for one hundred days of employment in every financial year to adult members of any rural household willing to do public work-related unskilled manual work at the statutory minimum wage.
The Ministry of Rural Development (MRD), Govt of India is monitoring the entire The purpose of this special drive is to ensure that all wage seeking families access:

  1. 100 days of employment per year.
  2. All place facilities like drinking water, shade, crèche etc.
·         The implementation of MGNREGA largely depends on the active participation of three-tier decentralized self governance units called Panchayat institutions.
·         The panchayats are required to
1.     estimate labor demand,
2.     identify works and demarcate work sites,
3.      prioritize works,
4.     Prepare village/block/district level development plans in advance for the continuous and smooth planning and the execution of this wage employment programme.
The Panchayats are responsible for processing the registration of job seekers, issuance of job cards, receipts of applications for employment, allotment of jobs, identification of work sites, planning, allocation and execution of works, payment of wages and commencement of social audit, transparency and accountability check at the grass-root level.
  • Adult members of rural households submit their name, age and address with photo to the Gram Panchayats.
  • The Gram Panchayats registers households after making enquiry and issues a job card. The job card contains the details of adult member enrolled and his /her photo. Registered person can submit an application for work in writing (for at least fourteen days of continuous work) either to Panchayats or to Programme Officer.
  • The Panchayats/programme officer will accept the valid application and issue dated receipt of application, letter providing work will be sent to the applicant and also displayed at Panchayats office.
  • The employment will be provided within a radius of 5 km: if it is above 5 km extra wage will be paid.
Budget 2013-14 : MGNREGS will get Rs 33,000 crore

The Centre proposes to create a biometric database of all workers covered under
the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. It will be used
to authenticate work applications, work-site attendance and wage payments

The MGNREGA is implemented solely by the state governments while the Centre allocates funds.

Ø Integrated  Child  Development  Services  (ICDS) Scheme

·         Launched on 2nd October 1975, today, ICDS Scheme represents one of the world’s largest and most unique programmes for early childhood development.
·         ICDS is the foremost symbol of India’s commitment to her children – India’s response to the challenge of providing pre-school education on one hand and breaking the vicious cycle of malnutrition, morbidity, reduced learning capacity and mortality, on the other.
  1. to improve the nutritional and health status of children in the age-group 0-6 years;
  2. to lay the foundation for proper psychological, physical and social development of the child;
  3. to reduce the incidence of mortality, morbidity, malnutrition and school dropout;
  4. to achieve effective co-ordination of policy and implementation amongst the various departments to promote child development; and
  5. To enhance the capability of the mother to look after the normal health and nutritional needs of the child through proper nutrition and health education.
  1. supplementary nutrition,
  2. immunization,
  3. health check-up,
  4. referral services,
  5. pre-school non-formal education and
  6. Nutrition & health education.

Three of the six services namely Immunization, Health Check-up and Referral Services delivered through Public Health Infrastructure under the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.
Funding Pattern:
·        ICDS is a Centrally-sponsored Scheme implemented through the State Governments/UT Administrations. Prior to 2005-06, 100% financial assistance for inputs other than supplementary nutrition, which the States were to provide out of their own resources, was being provided by the Government of India.
·        Since many States were not providing adequately for supplementary nutrition in view of resource constraints, it was decided in 2005-06 to support to States up to 50% of the financial norms or to support 50% of expenditure incurred by them on supplementary nutrition, whichever is less.
·        From the financial year 2009-10, Government of India has modified the funding pattern of ICDS between Centre and States.
·        The sharing pattern of supplementary nutrition in respect of North-eastern States between Centre and States has been changed from 50:50 to 90:10 ratios.
·        So far as other States and UTs, the existing sharing pattern of 50:50 continues. However, for all other components of ICDS, the ratio has been modified to 90:10(100% Central Assistance earlier).

Ø Indira  Awaas  Yojana

·         Started in 1985 as part of the Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP), Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY) was subsumed in Jawahar rojgar Yojana (JRY) in 1989 and has been operating as an independent scheme since 1996


·          to provide financial assistance to some of the weakest sections of society for them to upgrade or construct a house of respectable quality for their personal living.
·          The vision of the government is to replace all temporary (kutchcha) houses from Indian villages by 2017
Eligibility Criteria
·         Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes,
·         freed bonded labourers,
·          minorities and non-SC/ST rural households in the BP category,
·          widows and
·         next-of-kin to defence personnel/paramilitary forces killed in action (irrespective of their income criteria),
·         ex-servicemen and
·         retired members of paramilitary forces residing in rural areas
(i) Enhancement of unit assistance under the Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY) from Rs. 45,000/- to Rs. 70,000/- in plain areas and from Rs. 48,500/- to Rs. 75,000/- in hilly and difficult areas.

(ii) Enhancement of unit assistance provided for homestead site to rural Below Poverty Line (BPL) households who have neither agricultural land nor a house site for purchase/acquisition of a homestead site from Rs.10,000/- to Rs.20,000/-.

Funding pattern
·         centrally sponsored scheme funded on a cost sharing basis between the Central Government and the State Government in the 75%:25% ratio,
·         Except in case of North-eastern states and Union Territories (UTs).
·         For NE states the central government funds 90% and 100% for the UTs.

Budget 2013-14 : Indira Awaas Yojana, IAY has been allocated Rs 15,184 crore. 

Ø Pradhan  Mantri  Gram  Sadak  Yojana

·         Launched the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana on 25th December, 2000 to provide all-weather access to unconnected habitations.·          100% Centrally Sponsored Scheme

The goal was to provide roads to all villages

(1) with a population of 1000 persons and above by 2003,
(2) with a population of 500 persons and above by 2007,
(3) in hill states, tribal and desert area villages with a population of 500 persons and above by 2003, and
 (4) in hill states, tribal and desert area villages with a population of 250 persons and above by 2007

  Budget 2013-14 :  Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana, PMGSY is given Rs 21,700 crore

Ø Jawaharlal  Nehru  National  Urban Renewal  Mission  (JnNURM)
·         In order to improve the quality of life and the various infrastructures in the cities, the Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India introduced the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JnNURM), which involves a total investment plan of more than $20 billion over a period of seven years.
·         The scheme was named after the first Prime Minister of India, Dr. Jawaharlal Nehru  and was inaugurated by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on 3 December 2005. 
·         This program is mainly to cater to the improvements on quality of life and infrastructure in various cities across the country.


·         The Indian tradition primarily focuses on development of Rural Areas, more so the under developed villages, and thus the JNNURM project is aimed to achieve the redevelopment of various Indian cities.
·         India is a thickly populated country in the world, with over 1.21 billion people making their livelihood, as per the 2011 censusAs per the 2011 census and estimation reveals, that 68.9% of India’s population is concentrated in rural areas.
·         Contrary to this Urban cities in India are growing in an unplanned manner which is  a cause for concern.
·         India has had the privilege of showing steady growth rate even during the recent recession period which is another reason for its being to be named the next super power.
·         The problems created in the agricultural  areas of rural India, has resulted in an unplanned growth of urban Indian cities, which is attributed mainly due to migration of rural population to cities.  Let alone, this has also resulted in the increased slum population in cities, and lack of planning thereon, ultimately resulting in the cities degradation.
·           Insufficient infrastructure, increased population growth and above all, the increasing poverty in the urban areas, have resulted in the cities’ degradation across.
·          This has compelled the Government of India, to take necessary steps to develop the urban cities further, and provide necessary infrastructure, introduce municipal reforms and grant necessary aid to the Statement Governments, and Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) for a rapid urban development.
·         The Authorities while launching the JNNURM project, have spelt clearly through their pamphlets, that Indian Cities and towns form 30 percent of the country’s population, and thus contribute for 50-55 percent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP).  The Government has now decided to work out the strategies to enable them to strict to the country’s socio-economic objectives.


·         The condition for eligibility under the scheme is that at least 13 specific reforms are compulsorily achieved by the States and Municipalities so that they become eligible for funds release and in the process a total of 67 cities have been identified to be eligible (which was originally 63), also that they must have duly elected bodies in place. 
·          Also, at the State Level, the process includes various plans viz decentralization of urban planning and water supply, Sanitation from the states to cities, enactment of laws for community participation and public disclosure. 
·          Similarly at the Municipal Level, the related activities are, adoption of modern accounting systems, e-government, improvements in property tax collection, water supply at a better cost recovery, sanitation and solid waste management and above all ensure proper investments to the poor people.

The Scheme Will Cover The Following Areas:

·    Development of old city areas including road broadening, and  shifting of industrial/commercial establishments from non-conforming (inner-city) to conforming (outer city)  areas to reduce congestion, and other allied works
·       Water Supply including de-salination plants and sanitation.
·         Drainage management
·         Improved sanitation across the cities.
·        Construction/Up gradation of Roads, Highways/Expressways.
·        Parking lots / spaces on Public Private Partnership basis.
·         Development of Heritage Areas.
·        Prevention & rehabilitation of soil erosion / landslides only in case of Special  Category States where such problems are common and,
·         Preservation of Water Bodies.

Phase-II of JNNURM to focus more on small and medium towns, release of funds to be conditional on setting up of Municipal Cadre

Ø Sarva Skikshan Abhiyan 
·         Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is Government of India's flagship programme for achievement of Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE) in a time bound manner, as mandated by
·          86th amendment to the Constitution of India making free and compulsory Education to the Children of 6-14 years age group, a Fundamental Right.
·         SSA is being implemented in partnership with State Governments to cover the entire country and address the needs of 192 million children in 1.1 million habitations.
·         The programme seeks to open new schools in those habitations which do not have schooling facilities and strengthen existing school infrastructure through provision of additional class rooms, toilets, drinking water, maintenance grant and school improvement grants.
·         SSA has a special focus on girl's education and children with special needs. SSA also seeks to provide computer education to bridge the digital divide.

Funding pattern
i)                    Funding pattern between Central and States /UTs for Sarva Shiksha Abhiya (SSA) to be modified  as under :
2007-08 = 65:35
2008-09 = 65:35
2009-10 = 60:40
2010-11 = 55:45
2011-12 = 50:50
and thereafter.
ii)                   Funding Pattern for the 8 North-Eastern States, to be modified as 90:10 under the SSA.

·         The name of the Scheme was changed from ‘National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education’ to ‘National Programme of Mid Day Meal  in Schools’
·         The scheme was introduced in Tamilnadu by the then Chief Minister K. Kamaraj in the 1960s and later expanded by the M. G. Ramachandran government in 1982.
·          It has been adopted by most Indian states after a landmark direction by the Supreme Court of India on November 28, 2001.  
  KEY OBJECTIVES of the programme are:
1.    protecting children from classroom hunger,
2.     increasing school enrollment and attendance,
3.     improved socialization among children belonging to all castes,
4.    addressing malnutrition, and
5.    Social empowerment through provision of employment to women.

BENEFICIARIES : children studying in
1.      Government, Government aided and local body schools,
2.       Education Guarantee Scheme (EGS) and Alternative & Innovative Education (AIE) centres.3.    recognized as well as unrecognized Madarsas / Maqtabs supported under SSA

Class I- V:  450 Calories and 12 gram of protein

UPPER PRIM. CLASS : 700  Calories and 20 gram of protein

Ø National Rural Health Mission 

·         an Indian health program for improving health care delivery across rural India. The mission, initially mooted for 7 years (2005-2012), is run by the Ministry of Health.
·         The scheme proposes a number of new mechanism for healthcare delivery including training local residents as Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA) and the Janani Suraksha Yojana (motherhood protection program).
·         It also aims at improving hygiene and sanitation infrastructure.
The mission has a special focus on 18 states -- >

  • Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Jammu and Kashmir, Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Madhya Pradesh,  Nagaland ,  Orissa , Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tripura, Uttarkhand and Uttar Pradesh.
The major objectives or National Rural Health Mission was to ensure the following issues: ¨ Development of Infrastructure of state governments
Ø What are the core strategies of NRHM?
  The core strategies of NRHM include,

·        decentralized village and district level health planning and management,
·        appointment of Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) to facilitate access to
           health services,
·        strengthening the public health service delivery vinfrastructure, particularly at village,
·        primary and secondary levels,
·        mainstreaming AYUSH,
·        improved management capacity to organize health systems and services in public health,
·        emphasizing evidence based planning and implementation through improved capacity and infrastructure,
·        promoting the non-profit sector to increase social participation and
·        community empowerment,
·        promoting healthy behaviors and
·        improving intersectoral convergence

Ø What is ASHA?
     ASHA will be a health activist in the community who will create awareness on health and   its social determinants and mobilize the community towards local health planning and increased utilization and accountability of the existing health services.

Ø Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) / Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan 

·         Rural sanitation came into focus in the Government of India in the World Water Decade of1980s.
·         The Central Rural Sanitation Programme was started in 1986 to provide sanitation
facilities in rural areas. It was a supply driven, highly subsidy and infrastructure oriented programme.

Ø  The main objectives of the TSC are as under:
· Bring about an improvement in the general quality of life in the rural areas.
· Accelerate sanitation coverage in rural areas.
· Generate felt demand for sanitation facilities through awareness creation and health
· Cover schools/ Anganwadi’s in rural areas with sanitation facilities and promote
hygiene education and sanitary habits among students.
· Encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies in sanitation.
· Eliminate open defecation to minimize risk of contamination of drinking water
sources and food.
· Convert dry latrines to pour flush latrines, and eliminate manual scavenging practice, wherever in existence in rural areas

·         Government of India initiated an incentive scheme named the 'Nirmal Gram Puraskar’ (NGP).
·         NGP is given to those "open defecation free" Nirmal Gram Panchayats, Blocks, and Districts which have become fully sanitized.
·         The NGP comprises of citation (signed by Her Excellency, the then President of India), memento and cash award. Incentive amounts to village councils are offered based on a population criterion.
·         The incentive provision is for Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) as well as individuals and organizations that are the driving force for full sanitation coverage.
·         Nirmal Gram Puraskar toll 2011 was given by Ministry of Drinking Water and sanitation (MoDWS), Government of India at all levels of PRIs that is Gram Panchayat, Block Panchayat and district Panchayat. It has now been decided that with the transition of NBA, selection of Gram Panchayats to award Nirmal Gram Puraskar from the year 2012 shall be taken up by the State, while selection of the Blocks and District Panchayats shall continue to be with the Centre.
·         A "Nirmal Gram" is an "Open Defecation Free" village where all houses, Schools and Anganwadis having sanitary toilets and awareness amongst community on the importance of maintaining personal and community hygiene and clean environment.

Ø  Nirmal Bharat Yatra

·         The Nirmal Bharat Yatra (Great WASH Yatra, as it was known internationally) format is the brainchild of WASH United and Quicksand Design Studio.
·         From 3 October until 19 November 2012 – the first Yatra made its way 2,000 km through villages from Maharashtra to Bihar, stopping in the following six cities:

Ø  Wardha (Maharashtra)
Ø   Indore (Madhya Pradesh)
Ø   Kota  (Rajastan)
Ø  Gwalior (Madhya Pradesh)
Ø  Gorakhpur (Uttar Pradesh) and
Ø  Bettiah (Bihar)

·         The following cities were chosen as these are the states with the highest rates of open defecation and least toilet usage in all of India.
·         The Yatra aimed to tackle three primary messages:
Ø  hand washing at proper times,
Ø  ending open defecation, and
Ø  ending the topic of menstrual hygiene management as a societal taboo.

Through local, national, and international media, the Yatra reached 230 million people with its message

Ø The National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP)

·         The National Social Assistance Programme(NSAP) which came into effect from 15th August,1995 represents a significant step towards the fulfillment of the Directive Principles in Article 41 of the Constitution.
·         The programme introduced a National Policy for Social Assistance for the poor and aims at ensuring minimum national standard for social assistance in addition to the benefits that states are currently providing or might provide in future.
·         NSAP at present, comprises of

1.     Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme (IGNOAPS)
·          It was launched by Ministry of Rural Development.
·          All persons of 65 years (and above) and belonging to below the poverty line category according to the criteria prescribed by the Government of India time to time, are eligible to be a beneficiary of the scheme.
·          The pension amount, as in Union Budget 2012-13 is INR 400 per month per person and states are supposed to contribute an equal amount vis-a-vis the scheme.

2.     Indira Gandhi National Widow Pension Scheme (IGNWPS)

·         Objective of the Scheme is to give financial assistance @ Rs. 400/- per month toall the identified pensioners who are widows of the age group of 40 years -64 years, and from BPLfamilies . The coverage is universal and there shall not be any quota at any level.
·         Eligibility criteria and requirement of documents:

To get the benefit of the scheme, following criteria need to be fulfilled by an applicant :
a) She must not be less than 40 years of age and not above 64 years.
b) She should have to be from a family which is below the poverty line.
c) She shall get the pension till she attains the age of 65 years or till her remarriage.
d) She will be automatically covered under IGNOAPS at the age of 65 years.

3.      Indira Gandhi National Disability Pension Scheme (IGNDPS)
·        Central assistance of Rs. 300 p.m. per beneficiary is provided to persons with severe or multiple disabilities in the age group of 18-79 years and belonging to a household living below poverty line (BPL) as per criteria prescribed by Government of India.

4.     National Family Benefit Scheme (NFBS)
·        Central assistance for a lump sum family benefit is available for the households below the poverty line on the death of the primary breadwinner in the bereaved family.
·        the amount of assistance is Rs. 10,000.

5.     Annapurna
Ø  The Ministry of Rural Development has been chosen as the Nodal Ministry to implement the Scheme. The Scheme has been launched w.e.f. 1st April, 2000.
Ø  The "Annapurna Scheme" had been announced by the Finance Minister in his Budget Speech for the year 1999-2000 to provide food security to those indigent senior citizens who are not covered under the targeted Public Distribution System (PDS) and who have no income of their own.
Ø  Through the new "Annapurna" scheme, it is intended to provide 10 kgs. of food grains per month free of cost to all such person who are though eligible for old age pension under NOAPS, are presently not receiving it.
Ø  The number of persons benefiting from the Scheme are not to exceed for the present 20% of the old age pensioners within a State.
Ø   The Gram Panchayat would be required to identify, prepare and display a list of such persons after giving wide publicity to the Scheme

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