The term "non-alignment" itself was coined by Indian Prime Minister Nehru during his speech in 1954 in Colombo, Sri Lanka. In this speech, Nehru described the five pillars to be used as a guide for Sino-Indian relations, which were first put forth by Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai. Called Panchsheel (five restraints), these principles would later serve as the basis of the Non-Aligned Movement. The five principles were:
- Mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty
- Mutual non-aggression
- Mutual non-interference in domestic affairs
- Equality and mutual benefit
- Peaceful co-existence
Organisational structure and membership
Requirements of the NAM with the key beliefs of the United Nations. The latest requirements are now that the candidate country has displayed practices in accordance with:
- Respect for fundamental human rights and for the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations.
- Respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all nations.
- Recognition of the equality of all races and of the equality of all nations, large and small.
- Abstention from intervention or interference in the internal affairs of another country.
- Respect for the right of each nation to defend itself singly or collectively, in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations.
- Refraining from acts or threats of aggression or the use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any country.
- Settlement of all international disputes by peaceful means, in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations.
- Promotion of mutual interests and co-operation.
- Respect for justice and international obligation
- Belgrade, September 1-6, 1961
- Cairo, October 5-10, 1964
- Lusaka, September 8-10, 1970
- Algiers, September 5-9, 1973
- Colombo, August 16-19, 1976
- Havana, September 3-9, 1979
- New Delhi (originally planned for Baghdad), March 7-12, 1983
- Harare, September 1-6, 1986
- Belgrade, September 4-7, 1989
- Jakarta, September 1-6, 1992
- Cartagena de Indias, October 18-20, 1995
- Durban, September 2-3, 1998
- Kuala Lumpur, February 20-25, 2003
- Havana, September 15-16, 2006
- Sharm El Sheikh, July 11-16, 2009
- Tehran, 2012
Between summits, the Non-Aligned Movement is run by the secretary-general elected at last summit meeting. As a considerable part of the movement's work is undertaken at the United Nations in New York, the chair country's ambassador to the UN is expected to devote time and effort to matters concerning the Non-Aligned Movement. A Co-ordinating Bureau, also based at the UN, is the main instrument for directing the work of the movement's task forces, committees and working groups.
|Secretaries-General of the Non-Aligned Movement|
|Josip Broz Tito||Yugoslavia||1961||1964|
|Gamal Abdel Nasser||United Arab Republic||1964||1970|
|William Gopallawa||Sri Lanka||1976||1978|
|Junius Richard Jayawardene||1978||1979|
|N. Sanjiva Reddy||India||1983|
|Stjepan (Stipe) Mesić||1991|
|Dobrica Ćosić||1992|
|Ernesto Samper Pizano||Colombia||1995||1998|
|Andrés Pastrana Arango||1998|
|Nelson Mandela||South Africa||1998||1999|
|Mahathir bin Mohammad||Malaysia||2003|
|Abdullah Ahmad Badawi||2003||2006|
|Hosni Mubarak||Egypt||14 July 2009||present|