Sunday, November 8, 2009

Independent countries, who chose not to join any of the Cold War blocs, were also known as non aligned nations.

The term "non-alignment" itself was coined by Indian Prime Minister Nehru during his speech in 1954 in Colombo, Sri Lanka.[citation needed] In this speech, Nehru described the five pillars to be used as a guide for Sino-Indian relations, which were first put forth by Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai. Called Panchsheel (five restraints), these principles would later serve as the basis of the Non-Aligned Movement.[citation needed] The five principles were:

  • Mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty
  • Mutual non-aggression
  • Mutual non-interference in domestic affairs
  • Equality and mutual benefit
  • Peaceful co-existence

Organisational structure and membership


Requirements of the NAM with the key beliefs of the United Nations. The latest requirements are now that the candidate country has displayed practices in accordance with:

  • Respect for fundamental human rights and for the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations.
  • Respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all nations.
  • Recognition of the equality of all races and of the equality of all nations, large and small.
  • Abstention from intervention or interference in the internal affairs of another country.
  • Respect for the right of each nation to defend itself singly or collectively, in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations.
  • Refraining from acts or threats of aggression or the use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any country.
  • Settlement of all international disputes by peaceful means, in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations.
  • Promotion of mutual interests and co-operation.
  • Respect for justice and international obligation


Countries represented in the Asia-Africa Conference in Bandung, Indonesia on 1955 which was a precursor to the organisation. Twenty-nine countries were present representing over half the world's population.
  1. Yugoslavia Belgrade, September 1-6, 1961
  2. United Arab Republic Cairo, October 5-10, 1964
  3. Zambia Lusaka, September 8-10, 1970
  4. Algeria Algiers, September 5-9, 1973
  5. Sri Lanka Colombo, August 16-19, 1976
  6. Cuba Havana, September 3-9, 1979
  7. India New Delhi (originally planned for Baghdad), March 7-12, 1983
  8. Zimbabwe Harare, September 1-6, 1986
  9. Yugoslavia Belgrade, September 4-7, 1989
  10. Indonesia Jakarta, September 1-6, 1992
  11. Colombia Cartagena de Indias, October 18-20, 1995
  12. South Africa Durban, September 2-3, 1998
  13. Malaysia Kuala Lumpur, February 20-25, 2003
  14. Cuba Havana, September 15-16, 2006
  15. Egypt Sharm El Sheikh, July 11-16, 2009
  16. Iran Tehran, 2012


Between summits, the Non-Aligned Movement is run by the secretary-general elected at last summit meeting. As a considerable part of the movement's work is undertaken at the United Nations in New York, the chair country's ambassador to the UN is expected to devote time and effort to matters concerning the Non-Aligned Movement. A Co-ordinating Bureau, also based at the UN, is the main instrument for directing the work of the movement's task forces, committees and working groups.

Secretaries-General of the Non-Aligned Movement
Name Country From To
Josip Broz Tito Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia 1961 1964
Gamal Abdel Nasser Egypt United Arab Republic 1964 1970
Kenneth Kaunda Zambia 1970 1973
Houari Boumédienne Algeria 1973 1976
William Gopallawa Sri Lanka 1976 1978
Junius Richard Jayawardene 1978 1979
Fidel Castro Cuba 1979 1983
N. Sanjiva Reddy India 1983
Zail Singh 1983 1986
Robert Mugabe Zimbabwe 1986 1989
Janez Drnovšek Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia 1989 1990
Borisav Jović 1990 1991
Stjepan (Stipe) Mesić 1991
Branko Kostić 1991 1992
Dobrica Ćosić[citation needed] 1992
Suharto Indonesia 1992 1995
Ernesto Samper Pizano Colombia 1995 1998
Andrés Pastrana Arango 1998
Nelson Mandela South Africa 1998 1999
Thabo Mbeki 1999 2003
Mahathir bin Mohammad Malaysia 2003
Abdullah Ahmad Badawi 2003 2006
Fidel Castro[20] Cuba 2006 2008
Raúl Castro 2008 2009
Hosni Mubarak Egypt 14 July 2009 present

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