Sunday, November 29, 2009

  1. Manusmṛti or Manusmriti (Sanskrit: मनुस्मृति), also known as Mānava-Dharmaśāstra (Sanskrit: मानवधर्मशास्त्र), is the most important and earliest metrical work of the Dharmaśāstra textual tradition of Hinduism.[1] Generally known in English as the Laws of Manu, it was first translated into English in 1794 by Sir William Jones, an English Orientalist and judge of the British Supreme Court of Judicature in Calcutta.[2] The text presents itself as a discourse given by the sage called Manu to a group of seers, or rishis, who beseech him to tell them the "law of all the social classes" (1.2). Manu became the standard point of reference for all future Dharmaśāstras that followed it. According to Hindu tradition, the Manusmriti records the words of Brahma.By attributing the words to supernatural forces, the text takes on an authoritative tone as a statement on Dharma, in opposition to previous texts in the field, which were more scholarly.
  2. Vijnaneshwara was a prominent jurist of twelfth century India. His treatise, the Mitakshara, dealt with inheritance, and is one of the most influential legal treatises in Hindu law.

    Vijnaneshwara was born in the village of Martur, near Gulbarga in Karnataka. He lived in the court of king Vikramaditya VI (1076-1126), the Chalukya monarch of Basavakalyan.
  3. Chandragupta I (r. 320-335) was succeeded by his son, Samudragupta (r. 335-380) who conquered the Kushans and other smaller kingdoms and greatly expanded the emerging Gupta Empire. Chandragupta II (r. 380-414), the son of Samudragupta, expanded the Empire even further so that the Gupta Empire was almost as large as that of the ancient and powerful Mauryan Empire.
  4. Badami, in the Bagalokot district of Karnataka in South India, was once the capital of the Chalukyas who ruled over a large part of Karnataka from the 6th to 8th centuries. Founded by Pulakesi I in 540 AD
  5. - In the 6th century CE, the Hindu Chalukya rulers ruled over much of present South India. The Chalukyan king Pulakesi I established Bagalkote as his administrative headquarters; the district retained its prominent status until the Chalukyan empire was sacked by the Rashtrakutas in 753 CE. The Chinese explorer Hieun-Tsang visited Badami and described the people as "tall, proud,...brave and exceedingly chivalrous".
  6. Hiuen Tsang, a Chinese pilgrim who came to India in AD 629, was the most distinguished Buddhist scholar of his times. He stayed in India for 16 long years, travelling extensively and holding discussions with Buddhist scholars all over the country. A keen intellect, an enquiring mind, profound scholarship and, above all, a deep attachment to India, were the hallmarks of his impressive personality. Hiuen Tsang's services to the spread of Buddhist knowledge in China are inestimable
  7.  In the year 305 BC, Seleucus I Nicator went to India and apparently occupied territory as far as the Indus, and eventually waged war with the Maurya Emperor Chandragupta Maurya:. Always lying in wait for the neighboring nations, strong in arms and persuasive in council, he [Seleucus] acquired Mesopotamia, Armenia, 'Seleucid' Cappadocia, Persis, Parthia, Bactria, Arabia, Tapouria, Sogdia, Arachosia, Hyrcania, and other adjacent peoples that had been subdued by Alexander.
  8. - Indian troops won their last great victory against a foreign army of importance in 303 BC, when Chandragupta Maurya's army defeated Seleucus Nicator: Alexander's general.
  9.  Around 321 BC, the Nanda Dynasty ended and Chandragupta became the first king of the great Mauryan Dynasty and Mauryan Empire with the help of Vishnugupta. The Empire later extended over most of Southern Asia under King Asoka, who was at first known as 'Asoka .
  10. In 1646 Shivaji liberated the fort of Torana from the Bijapur commander.A huge treasure came into his possesion.This enabled Shivaji to build a new fort at Raighad and raise a good army.Later Shivaji occupied Chakan and Kondana fortresses.Shivaji also occupied fort of Kalyan in Thana district.Shivaji's military succss brought fear in the Bijapur courtiers,so tocontrol Shivaji they arrested Shahji Bhonsle


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