Tuesday, September 7, 2010

The NaxalitesNaxals or Naksalvadis are a Maoist communist group in India, leaders of the Naxalite-Maoist insurgency.
The Naxal name comes from the village of Naxalbari in the Indian state of West Bengal where the movement originated. The Naxals are considered far-left radical communists, supportive of Maoist political sentiment and ideology. Their origin can be traced to the split in 1967 of the Communist Party of India (Marxist), leading to the formation of the Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist). Initially the movement had its centre in West Bengal. In later years, it spread into less developed areas of rural central and eastern India, such as ChhattisgarhOrissa and Andhra Pradesh through the activities of underground groups like the Communist Party of India (Maoist).

Chhatradhar Mahato (born 1964) is an Indian ex Trinamool activist. He is the convener of the Maoist-backed Police Santrash Birodhi Janasadharaner Committee and a prominent tribal leader, though he himself is not an adivasi by descent. He gained prominence following the Salboni blast in November 2008.

Operation Green Hunt is the name used by the Indian media to describe theGovernment of India's ongoing paramilitary offensive against the Naxalite rebels. The operation began in November 2009 along five states in the "Red Corridor."
The term was coined by the Chhattisgarh police officials to describe one successful drive against CPI (M) in the state. It was erroneously used by the media to describe the wider anti-Naxalite operations; the Government of India doesn't use the term "Operation Green Hunt" to describe its anti-Naxalite offensive. 

 Bandopadhyay Committee: In May 2006, the Planning Commission appointed an expert committee headed by D. Bandopadhyay, a retired IAS officer instrumental in dealing with the Naxalites in West Bengal in the 1970s. The expert committee has underscored the social, political, economic and cultural discrimination faced by the SCs/STs across the country as a key factor in drawing large number of discontented people towards the Naxalites. The committee established the lack of empowerment of local communities as the main reason for the spread of the Naxal movement. Choosing its words carefully, the report states that "We have two worlds of education, two worlds of health, two worlds of transport and two worlds of housing...'' 

The expert committee delved deep into the new conflict zones of India, 
i.e. the mines and mineral rich areas, steel zones, as well as the SEZs. The report holds the faulty system of land acquisition and a non-existent R&R Policy largely responsible for the support enjoyed by the Naxalites. On the other hand, the committee makes a forceful plea for a policy and legal framework to enable small and marginal farmers to lease-in land with secure rights while landless poor occupying government land should not be treated as encroachers.

For the first time in the history of the Naxal movement, a government appointed committee has put the blame on the State for the growth of the movement. Providing statistics of 125 districts from the Naxal-affected States, the committee finds out that the state bureaucracy has pitiably failed in delivering good governance in these areas. The report recommends rigorous training for the police force, not only on humane tactics of controlling rural violence but also on the constitutional obligation of the State for the protection of fundamental rights.

Making a departure from the usual government position, the expert committee concludes that development paradigm pursued since independence has aggravated the prevailing discontent among the marginalized sections of society. Citing democratic principles, the report also argues for the right to protest and discovers that unrest is often the only thing that actually puts pressure on the government to make things work and for the government to live up to its own promises.
Dealing with Naxalism needs a holistic approach with development initiatives as an integral part of the security approach. Security here must be understood in its broader perspective, which includes human development in its scope, because human security is an inseparable component of any human development formula, and vice versa. 


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