Wednesday, September 22, 2010

Indian Payloads

  • TMC or the Terrain Mapping Camera is a CCD camera with 5 m resolution and a 40 km swath in the panchromatic band and was used to produce a high-resolution map of the Moon.The aim of this instrument was to completely map the topography of the Moon. The camera works in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum and captures black and white stereo images. When used in conjunction with data from Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument (LLRI), it can help in better understanding of the lunar gravitational field as well. TMC was built by the ISRO's Space Applications Centre (SAC) at Ahmedabad.The TMC was successfully tested on 29 October 2008 through a set of commands issued from ISTRAC.
  • HySI or Hyper Spectral Imager performed mineralogical mapping in the 400-900 nm band with a spectral resolution of 15 nm and a spatial resolution of 80 m.
  • LLRI or Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument determines the height of the surface topography by sending pulses of infrared laser light towards the lunar surface and detecting the reflected portion of that light. It operated continuously and collected 10 measurements per second on both the day and night sides of the Moon. It was successfully tested on 16 November 2008.
  • HEX is a High Energy aj/gamma x-ray spectrometer for 30 – 200 keV measurements with ground resolution of 40 km, the HEX measured UTh210Pb222Rn degassing, and other radioactive elements.
  • MIP or the Moon Impact Probe developed by the ISRO, is an impact probe which consisted of a C-band Radar altimeter for measurement of altitude of the probe, a video imaging system for acquiring images of the lunar surface and a mass spectrometer for measuring the constituents of the lunar atmosphere.It was ejected at 20:00 hours IST on 14 November 2008. The Moon Impact Probe successfully crash landed at the lunar south pole at 20:31 hours IST on 14 November 2008. It carried with it a picture of the Indian flag. India is now the fourth nation to place a flag on the Moon after the Soviet Union, United States and Japan.

Payload from other countries

  • C1XS or X-ray fluorescence spectrometer covering 1- 10 keV, mapped the abundance of MgAlSiCaTi, and Fe at the surface with a ground resolution of 25 km, and monitored solar flux.This payload is collaboration between Rutherford Appleton laboratory, U.K, ESA and ISRO. It was activated on 23 November 2008.
  • SARAThe Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyser from the ESA mapped mineral composition using low energy neutral atoms emitted from the surface.
  • RADOM-7Radiation Dose Monitor Experiment from the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences maps the radiation environment around the Moon. It was successfully tested on 16 November 2008.

Configuration of Chandrayaan-1 that lift off on the
OperatorIndian Space Research Organisation
Mission typeOrbiter
Satellite ofMoon
Orbital insertion date12 November 2008
Orbits3400 orbits around the Moon.
Launch date22 October 2008
00:52 UTC
Launch vehiclePSLV-C11
Launch siteSDSCSriharikota
Mission durationIntended: 2 years
Achieved: 312 days
COSPAR ID2008-052A
Mass1,380 kg (3,042 lb)
Orbital elements
Eccentricitynear circular
Apoapsisinitial 7,500 km (4,660 mi), final 100 km (62 mi), final (wef 19 May 2009) 200 km (124 mi)
Periapsisinitial 500 km (311 mi), final 100 km (62 mi), final (wef 19 May 2009) 200 km (124 mi)



Indian Space Research OrganisationRussian Federal Space Agency
Mission typeOrbiterlander and one rover
Satellite ofMoon
Launch date2013 (expected)
Launch vehicleGSLV
Mission durationOne year (orbiter and rover)

Mass2650 Kg (orbiter, lander and rover)

Award for Chandrayaan-1

Aiaa logo.png
The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) has selected ISRO's Chandrayaan-1 mission as one of the recipients of its annual AIAA SPACE 2009 awards, which recognizes key contributions to spacescience and technology.
The International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG) chose the Chandrayaan-1 team for giving the International Cooperation award, M, Annadurai, project director, Chandrayaan-1.The Chandrayaan team of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was chosen for the award for accommodation and tests of the most international lunar payload ever (from 20 countries consisting of India, the European Space Agency representing 17 European countries, NASA and Bulgaria) and the successful launch of the probe on PSLV rocket on 22 October and the lunar insertion of the spacecraft carried out subsequently.

Discovery of Caves on Moon

Chandrayaan-1 has discovered large caves on the lunar surface that can act as human shelter on moon. The tunnel, which has been discovered near the lunar equator, is an empty volcanic tube, measuring about two km in length and 360 metres in width. According to AS Arya, scientist SF of Ahmedabad-based Space Application Centre (SAC), this could be a potential site for human settlement on moon. Earlier, Japanese aircraft Kaguya had also discovered a cave on moon.


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