Thursday, February 6, 2014

The Vijayanagara Empire 

  • The Vijayangar Empire was founded by 2 brothers, Harihara and Bukka. 
  • According to legend they were officers of Muhammad Tughluq. 
  • They were sent to crush a rebellion in the South. 
  • Instead they broke away and founded their own kingdom. 
  • Harihara was crowned king in 1346. 
  • His brother Bukka I ruled after him, 1357-1377. 
  • The Vijayanagar Empire is named after its capital city (Its name means city of victory). 
  • The rulers of Vijayanager gradually conquered more and more territory and the empire reached a peak early in the 16th century. 

Harihar II (1377-1406)

Expanded the empire towards the sea coast but his greatest success was in wresting Belgaum and Goa from Bahmani and in sending expedition to Sri Lanka.

Devraya I (1406-1422)

Was defeated by Firoz Shah Bahmani and had to marry his daughter to him. But later he allied with the Reddy Kingdom and managed to defeat Firoz Shah Bahmani. He also built a dam across Tungabhadra.

Devraya II (1422-1446)

Inducted a large number of Muslims in the army (Their induction however had begun during Devraya’s I reign). Nuniz informs us that a large number of kings paid tribute to him.

Krishna Deva Raya (1509-30)

Won Orissa (Gajapati Kingdom) for Vijaynagar and Vijaynagar emerged strongest during his reign.
  • Krishna Deva Raya assumed the title of Yavanrayjaya Sthapancharya also called Abhinav Bhoja.
  • Paes says that Krishna Deva Raya was a man of much justice but subject to sudden fits of rage.
  • Krishna Deva Raya built a new city and expanded patronage to a large number of poets (Astha Diggajas).
  • Krishna Deva Raya wrote the political treatise of Amuktamalyamada in Telugu (Jambbavati Kalyannam in Sanskrit) and emphasized on the welfare of people.
  • Rama Raja entered into a treaty with the Portuguese to obtain themonopoly of horses.
Defeat of Vijaynagar Emipire
  • Vijayanagar’ defeat came in the battle of Talikotta in 1565 due to Rama Raja’s policy of playing one Muslim dynasty against the other for making Vijaynagar supreme.

Vijaynagar Architecture

  • The Vijaynagar rulers produced a new style of architecture called as Provida style. 
  • The large number and prominence of pillars and piers are  some of the distinct features. 
  • Horse was the most common animal on the pillars. 
  • Another important feature was the Mandapa or open pavilion with a raised platform, meant for seating deities.
  • Important temples were Vithalswami and Hazara temples at Hampi, Tadapatri and Parvati temples at Chidambaramand Varadraja and Ekambarnatha temples at Kanchipuram. 
  • The Vijaynagar rulers inscribed the stories of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata on the walls of the various temples. 
  • Hazara temple and Vithalswami temples are examples of this type of wall inscription.

 Points to remember :

-The Vijayanagar emperor created their own architecture style named Provida style which plays a lot of emphasis on piers and pillars. They had inscribed the tales from Ramayana and Mahabharata on the various temple that they have established. Most importantly being Vithalswami Temple and Hazari temple at Humpi at Karanataka. Horse was a recurring animals present in all the depictions.

-Two Portuguese visitors namely Nunez and Paes had visited the Vijayanagar empire and have described their experience, which are the basic source of our information.

-Krishana Devaraya assumed the title of 
Abhinav Bhoja and established political treatise Anuktamalyamada which deals with the welfare of the people.

-Ramaraja was one of the last kings of Tuluva dynasty and was defeated at Battle of Tallikota.

-Harihara-II expanded the Vijayanagar empire to Goa and Coastal area and also sent an expedition to Sri Lanka.

-Devaraya-I was defeated in the battle with Bahamani empire and constructed a dam across Tungbhadra river.

Some MCQzzz

1. Who established Vijayanagara empire?
A. Hari Hara and Bukka
B. Krishna Devaraya
C. Saluva Narasimha
D. Sadasivaraya
2. Vijayanagara empire was established in
A. 1307
B. 1318
C. 1336
D. 1348
3. Who was the Delhi Sultan at the time of establishment of Vijayanagara empire?
A. Feroz Shah Tughluq
B. Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq
C. Alla-ud-din-khilji
D. Muhammad Bin Tughluq
4. Hari Hara and Bukka belong to the dynasty of
A. Saluva
B. Tuluva
C. Araviti
D. Sangama
5. Who was the first Vijayanagara ruler?
A. Bukkaraya
B. Hari Hara Raya I
C. Devaraya I
D. Alia Ramaraya
6. The Hoyasala kingdom was annexed to Vijayanagara empire during the period of
A. Sri Krishna Devaraya
B. Virupaksha II
C. Immadi Narasimha
D. Hari Hara Raya I
7. The gold coins of Vijayanagara kingdom were called as
A. Varahas
B. Panas
C. Nishka
D. Kakini
8. Nadus of Vijayanagara kingdom were divided into
A. Valanadus
B. Vishayas
C. Sthalas
D. Villages
9. Who wrote Kalahastiswara Shatakam?
A. Dhurjati
B. Allasani Peddana
C. Nandi Timmana
D. Pingali Surana
Answer: A 
 10. Vijayanagara and Bahmani Sultans fought frequently for control over
A. Raichur Doab
B. Bijapur
C. Golkonda
D. Gulbarga
Answer: A
11. The persian ambassador who visited Vijayanagara empire in 1443 was
A. Marco polo
B. Abdul Razak
C. Barbosa
D. Nikolo kanti
12. Who was the most famous ruler of Tuluva dynasty?
A. Sri Krishna Devaraya
B. Hari Hara I
C. Tirumala Raya
D. Sadasiva Raya
13. Who was the successor of Saluva Narasimha?
A. Immadi Narasimha
B. Hari Hara II
C. Devaraya I
D. Virupaksha II
Answer: A
14. Who was the founder of Tuluva dynasty?
A. Sadasiva Raya
B. Virupaksha II
C. Tuluva Narasanayaka
D. Tirumala Raya
15. When did Krishna Devaraya made alliance with Portuguese?
A. 1507
B. 1504
C. 1502
D. 1510
16. Who wrote Manu Charithra?
A. Nanditimmana
B. Pingali Surana
C. Allasani Peddana
D. Tenali Ramakrishna
17. Which of the following was written by Nandi Timmana?
A. Amuktamalyada
B. Parijatapaharana
C. Usha Parinayam
D. Manu Charithra
18. What was the period of rule of Sri Krishna Devaraya?
A. 1500-1520
B. 1504-1518
C. 1509-1529
D. 1512-1530
Answer: C
19. Which of the following was written by Sri Krishna Devaraya in Sanskrit?
A. Usha Parinayam
B. Manu Charithra
C. Amuktamalyada
D. Parijatapaharanam
20. Who was the successor of Sri Krishna Devaraya?
A. Tirumala Raya
B. Virupaksha II
C. Achuta Raya
D. Deva Raya I
Answer: C
21. The empire was divided into provinces and the provinces were sub-divided into
A. Bukktis
B. Nadus
C. Aharas
D. Vishayas
Answer: B
22. The eight poets called Ashtadiggajas were in the court of
A. Sri Krishna Devaraya
B. Devaraya II
C. Hari Hara I
D. Bukka Raya I
Answer: A
23. Who had the title of Andhra kavita pitamaha?
A. Nandi Timmana
B. Pingali Surana
C. Allasani Peddana
D. Tenali Rama Krishna
Answer: C
24. Who built vittala swami temple In Hampi?
A. Sadasivaraya
B. Devaraya II
C. Alia Ramaraya
D. Saluva Narasimha
Answer: B
25. Who wrote Madhura Vijayam?
A. Ammanga Devi
B. Parvati Devi
C. Maha Devi
D. Ganga Devi
Answer: D
26. Who wrote Panduranga Mahatyam?
A. Rajasekara
B. Tenali Ramakrishna
C. Ayyala Raju Ramabhadrudu 
D. Allasani Peddana
Answer: B
27. What was the title of Sri Krishna devaraya?
A. Andhra Bhoja
B. Kannada Bhoja
C. Andhra Raja
D. Kannada Raja
28. Who was the famouse king in Aravidu dynasty?
A. Narasanayaka
B. Venkatapati Raya II
C. Sri Krishna Devaraya
D. Devaraya II
29. Who built Hazara Ramaswami temple?
A. Sri Krishna Devaraya
B. Ramaraya
C. Sadasiva Raya
D. Immadi Narasimha
Answer: A
30. Who was the Italian Travellar visited Vijayanagaram during the period of Devaraya II?
A. Barbsa
B. Abdul Razak
C. Nikolo Kanti
D. Maroco Polo
31. Who was the last king of Tuluva dynasty?
A. Sri Krishna Devaraya
B. Sadasiva Raya
C. Immadi Narasimha
D. Narasanayaka
32. Who was the last king of Aravidu dynasty?
A. Sri Ranga Raya II
B. Venkatapati Raya II
C. Sadasiva Raya
D. Sri Ranga Raya III
33. Who was the first king of Aravidu dynasty?
A. Achuta Raya
B. Devaraya II
C. Sri Krishna Devaraya
D. Tirumala Raya
34. The Vijayanagara ruler who made treaty with protuguese
A. Alia Ramaraya
B. Bukkaraya
C. Saluva Narasimha
D. Sri Krishnadevaraya
35. What was the period of rule of Sangama dynasty?
A. 1336-1485
B. 1320-1435
C. 1340-1480
D. 1360-1490
Answer: A
36. Who was the successor of Harihara I?
A. Bukka I
B. Bukka II
C. Harihara II
D. Devaraya I
Answer: A
37. Devaraya II was also known as
A. Mahadevaraya
B. Maharaja
C. Rajadhiraja
D. Proudha Devaraya
Answer: D
38. The Kalinga king Prataparudra Gajapati was defeated by
A. Sri Krishna devaraya
B. Tirumalaraya
C. Hari Hara Raya I
D. Achuta Raya
Answer: A
39. Who was the Vijayanagara king at the time Tallikota war?
A. Sri Ranagaraya
B. Venkatapari Raya II
C. Virupaksha II
D. Sadasiva Raya
Answer: D
40. Who played key role in the Vijayanagara politics during the period of Sadasiva Raya?
A. Immadi Narasimha
B. Aliya Rama Raya
C. Bukkaraya I
D. Devaraya I
Answer: B
41. Aliya Rama raya was killed by
A. Muhammad Shah
B. Feroz Shah
C. Hussien Nizam Shah I
D. Kuli Qutb Shah
Answer: C
42. Who shiffeted the capital from Penugonda to Chandra Giri?
A. Venkatapati Raya II
B. Sri Rangaraya II
C. Achuta Raya
D. Sadasiva Raya
Answer: A
43. What was the period of rule of Saluva dynasty?
A. 1460-1510
B. 1486-1505
C. 1490-1520
D. 1498-1540
Answer: B
44. Saluva Narasimha ascended the throne in
A. 1460
B. 1470
C. 1486
D. 1496
Answer: C
45. Amuktamalyada was written by
A. Sri Krishna Devaraya
B. Ramaraya
C. Devaraya II
D. Tirumala Raya
Answer: A
46. Ashtadiggajas were flourished in the court of
A. Devaraya II
B. Sadasivaraya
C. Saluva Narasimha
D. Sri Krishna Devaraya
Answer: D
47. Tallikota war between Vijayanagara and Deccan Sultans took place in
A. 1550
B. 1560
C. 1565
D. 1570
Answer: C
48. The Vijayanagara ruler who was defeated in Tallikota war
A. Ramaraya
B. Sri Krishna Devaraya
C. Saluva Narasimha
D. Devaraya II
Answer: A
49. Which of the following dynasties ruled Vijayanagara empire?
A. Sangama
B. Saluva and Tuluva
C. Aravidu
D. All the above
Answer: D
50. The Bijapur Sultan who was defeated by Sri Krishna Devaraya at Raichur
A. Muhammad Shah I
B. Ismail Adil Shah
C. Feroz Shah
D. Ahmad Shah
Answer: B

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