Sunday, February 2, 2014


·   The Bahmani kingdom was founded in 1347 by Hasan Gangu who revolted and proclaimed his independence from the Sultanate. 
·   He assumed the title of Ala-ud-din Bahmani (also Bahman Shah). 
·   Gulbarga was his capital. 
·   He divided his kingdom into four tarafs or provinces and placed each one under a tarafdar or governor. 
·   He was succeeded by Muhammad Shah I (1358-1373) whose reign was chiefly occupied in waging savage wars against Vijayanagar and Warangal. 
·   Some of the other notable rulers of the dynasty were: 

1.    Firuz Shah (1397-1422) who twice defeated Vijayanagar but was ultimately defeated at Pangul; 
2.    Ahmad Shah (1422-1433) who conquered Warangal and shifted the capital to Bidar, and who was also known as Wali on account of his association with a sufi, Gesu Daraz; 
3.    Humayun (1451-1461) famous for his minister, Khwaja Mahmud Gawan; 
4.    Muhammad Shah ill (1463-1482) whose reign saw Mahmud Gawan expand the kingdom as never before. 

In his campaign against Vijayanagar in 1481 he even reached and plundered Kanchi. He overran Dahlol and Goa on the western coast. However, Gawan was a Persian by birth and hence disliked by the 'Deccani' chiefs who were native. The Deccani party conspired against him and got him executed in 1481.

Gradually, the Bahmani kingdom declined in power till, in 152~, Amir Barid usurped the throne. Thus the dynasty came to an end.


o    The Deccan Sultanates were five Muslim ruled kingdoms located in the Deccan plateau
o    They ruled south central India from 1527 to 1686
o    The Deccan Sultanates were established following the breakup of the Bahmani Sultanate in 1527.

o    The five kingdoms of the Deccan Sultanates were
o    Ahmadnagar (1490-1636)
o    Bijapur (1490-1686)
o    Berar (1490-1572)
o    Golkonda (1518-1687)
o    Bidar (1528-1619)

o    The Deccan Sultanates were generally rivals but united against the Vijayanagara Empire in the Battle of Tallikota in 1565
o    An important cultural contribution of the Deccan Sultanates was the development of Dakhani Urdu – drawn from Arabic, Persian, Marathi, Kannada and Telugu
o    The period is also famous for the development of Deccani miniature paintings, which flourished in Ahmadnagar, Bijapur and Golkonda

Ahmadnagar Sultanate
o    The Ahmadnagar Sultanate was located in northwestern Deccan, between the Gujarat and Bijapur sultanate
o    The Sultanate was established by Malik Ahmad in 1490, who founded the Nizam Shahi dynasty
o    The capital city of the Sultanate was initially Junnar, which was later shifted to Ahmadnagar
o    The earliest examples of miniature paintings are found in the manuscript Tarif-i-Hussain Shahi (c. 1565)
o    This period is also known for the encyclopaedia Nrisimha Prasada written by Dalapati
o    The Ahmadnagar Sultanate was annexed into the Mughal Empire by Aurangzeb (during the reign of Shah Jahan) in 1636.

Berar Sultanate
o    The Berar Sultanate was established by Imad-ul Mulk in 1490
o    It was annexed by the Ahmadnagar Sultanate in 1572

Bidar Sultanate
o    The Bidar Sultanate was established by Qasim Barid in 1490
o    Bidar was sandwiched between the Ahmadnagar, Bijapur and Golconda sultanates
o    Bidar was annexed by Ibrahim Adil Shah II of the Bijapur Sultanate in 1619
o    An important type of metalwork called Bidri originated in Bidar. These metalworks were carried out on black metal (mainly zinc) with inlaid designs of silver, brass and copper

Bijapur Sultanate
o    The Bijapur Sultanate was established by Yusuf Adil Shah in 1490, who founded the Adil Shahi dynasty
o    The Bijapur Sultanate was located in northern Karnataka, with its capital at Bijapur
o    Under the Adil Shahi dynasty, Bijapur became an important centre of commerce and culture in India
o    The Begum Talab was a 234 acre tank constructed by Mohammad Adil Shah in 1651 in memory of Jahan Begum. Underground pipes, encased in masonry supplied water from the tank to the city residents
o    Ibrahim Adil Shah II wrote a book of songs in Dakhani urdu called Kitab-i-Navras. This work contains a number of songs set to different ragas.
o    Bijapur checked an invasion by the Portuguese in the year 1510, against Goa. However, it was defeated the following year.  
o    During the 17th century, the Marathas rebelled against the Bijapur Sultanate, under the leadership of Chhatrapati Shivaji.
o    The Bijapur Sultanate was annexed into the Mughal Empire by Aurangzeb in 1686

Golconda Sultanate
o    The Golconda Sultanate was established in 1518 by Qutb-ul-Mulk, who founded the Qutb Shahi dynasty
o    The Golconda Sultanate was located in northern Andhra Pradesh
o    The capital city was Hyderabad
o    The Qutb Shahi dynasty was responsible for the construction of the Jami Masjid (1518), Charminar (1591) and Mecca Masjid (1617)
o    Another famous structure from the period is the fort of Golconda
o    The Shahi dynasty was instrumental in the development of Dakhani urdu
o    Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah wrote the Kulliyat-i-Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah in Dakhani urdu
o    Golconda was annexed into the Mughal Empire by Aurangzeb in 1687

Do you know 


·   Chand Bibi also known as Chand Khatun or Chand Sultana was a woman warrior who positioned herself as a rebellious counterpart in her self willed struggle for freedom. 
·   Chand Bibi, daughter of the sultan of Ahmednagar and wife of Adil Shah I of the Bijapur sultanate
·   She acted as the Regent of Bijapur (1580-90) as well as the Regent of Ahmednagar (1596-99). 
·     She acted as the wall for Ahmednagar and in the history of India as well as humanity. 
·   She is best known for defending Ahmednagar against the Mughal forces of Emperor Akbar. 
·   However, in subsequent engagements with Akbar’s son, Daniyal, she could not resist the might of the Mughal forces and was forced to negotiate a treaty. 
·   It is said that Chand Bibi was killed by her own troops, who believed she had sold out to the enemy.


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