Friday, October 29, 2010


Article 52 states that there shall be a President of India. The executive powers of the Union shall be vested in the President. He, as the head of a state, symbolises the nation. In some democratic systems, the head of the state is also the head of the government and, therefore, he will also be the head of the political executive. The US Presidency represents this form. In Britain, the monarch is the symbolic head, representing the British nation. The powers of the Government are vested in the political office of the Prime Minister. In Indian Parliamentary democracy we have adopted the latter form. The President of India is the first citizen and represents the Indian nation and does not, therefore, belong to any particular political party. He is elected by the representatives of the people through an Electoral College.

Article 54 of the constitution says:
"The President shall be elected by the members of an electoral college consisting of -
(a) The elected members of both Houses of Parliament and
(b) The elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States (including National Capital Territory of Delhi and the Union Territory of Pondicherry vide the Constitution 70th amendment Act, 1992)."

Thus in the election of the President the citizens play no direct part and he is elected indirectly by the representatives or the people, like the American President but no special electoral college is elected, as in the case of America. Another point of difference that may be noted is that the election of the President of India is by the system of proportional representation, by the single transferable vote, as provided by Article 55(3) of the Constitution, while the American President is elected by the straight vote system. 

                                             Some Rashtrapati Bhavan Facts..
                                                                          Rashtrapati Bhavan

  • The main entrance to Rashtrapati Bhavan is known as Gate 35, and is located on Prakash Vir Shastri Avenue, renamed from North Avenuein November 2002, as a memorial to the politician of the namesake who served here during his tenure as a Member of Parliament for the state of Uttar Pradesh.
  • The Mughal Garden in The Palace of India displays numerous types of flowers and is open to public in February every year.
  • No steel was used to construct The Palace of India.
  • The song Des Rangila from Fanaa was shot at Rashtrapati Bhavan including its rehearsal scenes.
  • Jaipur Column---The main structure is 640 feet wide and its sides are 540 feet deep (roughly 195 by 165 meters). The circumference at the base is a kilometere long. There is a vast court in front, T-shaped, with the horizontal line aligned with the front of the building. In the center of this jutting section stands the Jaipur Column, 145 feet(44.2 meters), topped by a bronze lotus from which rises a six-pointed glass star. The name of the column comes from the fact that its cost was borne by the Maharaja of Jaipur. An intresting details about the column is that inside the stone shaft runs a steel tube which tethers the lotus and the star, which weigh a little more than five tonnes, to a concrete block in the foundation.The British sculptor Charles Sargeant Jagger, known for his war memorials in Britain, designed the elephants on the corners of the retaining walls, as well as the bas-reliefs around the base of the Jaipur Column.
  • Banquet Hall
    State Dinning Hall, now known as Banquet Hall. Can seat 104 persons. Portraits of all former Presidents embellish its walls. An assortment of medieval arms on display.
  • It is the largest residence of any Head of the State in the world.

 Names of Presidents Tenure No.

1. Dr Rajendra Prasad (1884-1963) 26 January 1950 to 13 May 1962

2. Dr Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan (1888-1975) 13 May 1962 to 13 May 1967

3. Dr Zakir Hussain (1897-1969) 13 May 1967 to 3 May 1969

4. Shri Varahagiri Venkat Giri (1894-1980) 3 May 1969 to 20 July 1969 and 24 August 1969 to 24 August 1974

5. Dr Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed (1905-1977) 24 August 1974 to 11 February 1977

6. Shri Neelam Sanjiva Reddy (1913-1996) 25 July 1977 to 25 July 1982

7. Giani Zail Singh (1916-1994) 25 July 1982 to 25 July 1987

8. Shri R. Venkataraman (1910- ) 25 July 1987 to 25 July 1992

9. Dr Shankar Dayal Sharma (1918-1999) 25 July 1992 to 25 July 19973

10. Shri K.R. Narayanan (1920-2005) 25 July 1997 to 25 July 2002

11. Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam (1931- ) 25 July 2002 to 25 July 2007

12.Pratibhatai DeviSingh Patil (currently)

Rashtrapati Nilayam  is one of the three official retreats of the President of India. It is located in a suburb called Bollarum on the outskirts of the south Indian city, Secunderabad.
Because this residence is in a region far removed from the national capital, New Delhi, it is held to be indicative of the role that the President plays in unifying a diverse nation.
It has come to be known as President's Southern Sojourn. It is occasionally used as a guest house for visiting dignitaries.
The other retreats are Rashtrapati Bhavan in New Delhi and The Retreat Building in Shimla.
The Rashtrapati Nilayam was constructed in 1860 by the erstwhile Nizam of Hyderabad. After the Hyderabad state joined the Indian Union in1948, the management of this estate was taken over by the President's Secretariat.
The Retreat Building is the official Retreat Residence of the President of India at Chharabra,Shimla. It is located 10km away from Shimla and is a thousand feet higher than the Shimla Ridge Top.
The Retreat Building was built in 1850 and it was a part of the Viceroy of India property. This building was taken over from viceroy during 1895.
Roshini is an initiative taken on the directions of the President to make the President's Estate a green, energy efficient and a zero waste model township.
The role of The President's Bodyguard is twofold - Ceremonial and Operational. They are the personal troops of The President of India and hence form an integral part of all state functions. Operationally, The President's Bodyguard has always responded to the call of duty. The Regiment has seen action in various roles and battlefields ever since it was raised. Post Independence, the Bodyguard Armoured Cars were the first to be air lifted to Chushul. In 1965, the Regiment participated in 'OPERATIONAL ABLAZE'. Detachments of the Bodyguard have served in 'OPERATION PAWAN' in Sri Lanka with the Indian Peace Keeping Force and in 'OPERATION MEGHDOOT' on the Siachen Glacier. Detachments of the Bodyguard have also served overseas with the United Nations Peace Keeping Forces in Somalia, Angola and Sierra Leone. 

President of IndiaThe President's Bodyguard was raised in 1773 at Benaras by the then Governor General of India, Warren Hasting and is the senior most Regiment of the Indian Army. The Regiment has completed 235 years of distinguished service. It is the senior most unit of the Indian Army, whose distinction, is in its position as 'Right of the Line' on all official and ceremonial occasions. The President's Bodyguard thus, takes precedence over all other Regiments and Corps. Col Ali Adil Mahmood, VSM is presently commanding the Regiment with Lt Col Ravinder Narwal, SM as Second-in-Command, Maj Mohit Vaishnava as Technical Adjutant and Maj Rahul Ranjan as the Medical Officer. Lt Gen Vinod Chopra, AVSM and Bar, Military Secretary to the President, is the Colonel of the Regiment.

Air India One (AI-001) is the call-sign of any aircraft with the Prime Minister of India or the President of India on-board. This plane is also known as VIP-1 or Tanjore.Since 2003, a Boeing 747-437B, equipped with jamming equipment, anti-missile systems and air-to-air refueling facility, has been used as Air India One.
Dr. Najma Heptulla  is vice president of BJP an Indian politician and was a Rajya Sabha member from Rajasthan from July 2004 to July 2010. She is the grand-niece of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, a prominent Indian freedom fighter, a strong proponent of united India, and its first Minister of Education after Independence. She lost to Hamid Ansari in the 13th Vice-Presidential Elections held in August 2007 by 233 votes.
Did you know ?

India also celebrates the birthday of Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, former President and Vice-President and great statesman, as “Teachers’ Day”. Born on September 5, 1888, at Tiruttani, 40 miles to the north-east of Madras, Radhakrishnan grew to become the most famous Indian teacher and philosopher of all times. In his honour, this day is celebrated as Teacher’s Day. He was also the Vice-President of India from 1952-1962. He held the office of the Chancellor, University of Delhi, before taking over as the President of India in May 1962.

Who was the first woman to contest elections for the post of President of India?-Lakshmi Sehgal "

A doctor by profession, Captain Lakshmi came into the limelight in India towards the end of World War II for her role as the commander of theRani of Jhansi Regiment of the INA and her role as a minister in Subhas Bose's Azad Hind government. She later became involved in politics in independent India, serving as a member of parliament in the Upper House and later running for President as a left wing candidate. Lt Col Swaminathan is commonly referred to as Captain Lakshmi in India, referring to her rank at the time of being taken prisoner in Burma, as widely reported in Indian newspapers at the end of the war and which captured the public imagination, as opposed to her not widely known promotion in the last days of Azad Hind.

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